Eczema or Atopic Dermatitis : Symptoms,Treatment – Dr.Garima

Eczema or Atopic dermatitis is a skin condition in which there is redness, dryness of skin occur with severe itching. Above all, atopic dermatitis symptoms flare up again and again so needed a proper treatment. In eczema or atopic dermatitis skin becomes cracked, rough and sometimes blisters may also seen.

At a Glance –

    Also known as Dermatitis.

   Dermatitis – inflammation of skin i.e. derma – skin, itis – inflammation.

    ECZEMA or Atopic Dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by red, itchy rashes with swelling and blisters or cracked skin.

   Cause is unknown but family history is more common.

   Physical examination is more than sufficient.

    Immediate consultancy is required from doctors, easily treatable by doctors.

Etymology of Eczema

It has been derived from a Greek word which means to “boil over”.

What is the main cause of eczema?

  • Usually unknown and non-contagious.
  • Environmental factors like poor hygiene, dampness or humidity.
  • Genetic causes.
  • Weak immunity.
  • Family or personal history of hay fever or asthma.
Risk factors –
  • Exposure to Irritants or Chemicals: like soaps, household cleaners, wool or polyester like fabrics, detergents, shampoos, disinfectants, metals or eatables like meats, vegetables or juices.
  • Foods: Dairy products, soy products or eggs, nuts.
  • Allergens: like house Dust mites, pets like cats and dogs, pollens, and mold.
  • Microbes: bacterial infection or any fungal infection or using Antibacterial ointments.
  • Stress related: It usually worsens the symptoms.
  • Cigarette smoking.
  • Fragrances.
  • Temporary tattoos.


What are the symptoms of eczema?

It is very common disease. However, females are more prone to it. About 10 % population in United States are affected from different types of eczematous condition. It varies from person to person and on the basis of types of dermatitis.

Common symptoms of dermatitis are –
  • Redness and dryness of skin.
  • Severe itching especially at night.
  • Presence of swelling.
  • Red patches occur specially on hands, feet, ankle, wrist, neck, chest, inside the bend of elbows, face and scalp or genital area, back of knees i.e. folds.
  • Skin becomes scaly thick known as lichenification or cracked sometimes.
  • Itching causes scratching and bleeding.
  • Skin lesions may be sometimes oozing or weeping sores or scarring.

How eczema or atopic dermatitis look like?

how eczema or atopic dermatits look like - Redness and dryness of skin , severe itching especially at night.

image source from medicine net

Can dermatitis damage the skin?

Dermatitis in general means inflammation of skin. There are number of causes of it and it is of various types too. In this skin becomes cracked, rough and blisters may also appear or skin may ooze or sometimes flakes may develop or crusts appear. Inflammation of skin means there is redness, swelling seen in dermatitis or eczema with severe itching however it is recurrent too so needed a proper treatment.

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How many types of eczema are there?

1.eczema or Atopic dermatitis –

It is the most common type of eczema. It is one of the atopic triad, the other two are Asthma and Hay fever.

SYMPTOMS of eczema or Atopic dermatitis –

  • Eczema or atopic dermatitis is more common in childhood especially at scalp and cheeks.
  • Rashes occur in the bends of elbows or on knees.
  • Skin may get lighter or darker or thicker where the rashes appear.
  • Blisters may appear which may ooze.
eczema or Atopic dermatitis - It is more common in childhood especially at scalp and cheeks . Rashes occur in the bends of elbows or on knees.

image source from medicinenet

CAUSES of eczema or Atopic dermatitis –

  • Genetic.
  • Dry Skin.
  • Susceptible individual or low immunized persons.
  • Environmental factors.

eczema or Atopic dermatitis - Skin may get lighter or darker or thicker where the rashes appear.

image source from nationaleczema

2.Contact dermatitis –

Contact dermatitis is of two types Allergic and Irritant. Allergic is because of delayed reaction to an allergen while Irritant is because of immediate and instant reaction to any particular substance. Irritant is more painful. It is the form of dermatitis which occurs in body because of irritation with particular substance. When any person comes in contact with those irritants it leads to irritated skin.


  • Skin becomes red irritated.
  • Itching is more prominent in it.
  • There is burning and stinging sensation.
  • Blisters may appear which may ooze and crusty.
  • Skin may get thickened or scaly or leathery.
Eczema or Irritant dermatitis - Skin may get thickened or scaly or leathery.

Image source from BMJ

Eczema or Contact dermatitis - Skin becomes red irritated. Itching is more prominent in it.

image source from CMAJ


When anyone gets in contact with these substances like –

  • Detergents
  • Jewelry
  • Latex
  • Bleach
  • Nickel
  • Paint
  • Skin care products
  • Poisonous substances
  • Soaps perfumes
  • Tobacco
  • Smoke
  • Sun exposure.

3.Dyshidrotic Eczema –

It is also called as Vesicular Palmoplantar Dermatitis. It is more common in females.


  • Skin becomes red, cracked, painful and scaly or flake.
  • There is severe violent itching.
  • Small blisters occur especially on fingers, palms of hands, toes and soles of feet.
  • It is worse at night or in warm weather.
Eczema or Vesicular Palmoplantar Dermatitis - It is more common in females. Skin becomes red , cracked , painful and scaly or flake..

image source from Medical News Today


Eczema - Small blisters occur especially on fingers , palms of hands , toes and soles of feet.

image source from


  • Stress related.
  • Dampness.
  • Exposure to allergens or certain substances like nickel, cobalt.

4.Stasis dermatitis –

It is also known as Gravitational Eczema. More common in ankle area over 50 years of age.


  • Skin of Lower leg is involved in it which is because of Circulatory problems.
  • Swelling in lower legs may be seen which increases by walking.
  • Pain and heaviness in legs.
  • Darkness in legs with severe itching.
  • Open sores may also develop on lower leg.
  • It may also lead to leg ulcers.
Gravitational Eczema - More common in ankle area over 50 years of age.

image source from Reader’s Digest

Eczema -Swelling in lower legs may be seen which increases by walking.

image source from centerforvein


  • Pooling of blood is one of the causes.
  • Circulatory issues like heart problem is also one of the causes.

5.Nummular Dermatitis –

It is also known as Discoid Eczema.


  • It mainly occurs in winter.
  • Males are commonly affected.
  • In this round, coin shaped and dry patches occur in skin of leg.
  • It itches a lot.
Discoid Eczema - It mainly occurs in winter.

image source from Nidirect

Eczema or Nummular Dermatitis - males are commonly affected.

image source from


  • It occurs due to reaction to an insect bite.
  • Exposure to allergic substances like metals, chemical.

6.Neurodermatitis –

It is also called as Lichen Complex Chronicus.


  • In this scaly, red, raw, dark colored, thick patches occur on skin of head, forearm, wrist, lower legs, back of neck, bottom of feet, back of hand, genitals.
  • Itching is severe while you sleep.
  • Scratching may lead to bleeding or infection or scarring.
Eczema or Neurodermatitis - In this scaly , red , raw , dark colored , thick patches occur on skin of head , forearm , wrist , lower legs , back of neck , bottom of feet , back of hand , genitals.

image source from


  • Stress.
  • It is similar to atopic dermatitis.

7.Hand eczema –

As it mainly affects your hands that’s why it is termed as Hand Eczema.


  • Red itchy and dry patches occur on hand.
  • Cracks and blisters may also seen.
Hand eczema - As it mainly affects your hands that's why it is termed as Hand Eczema.

image source from


  • Exposure to chemicals.
  • Jobs like cleaning or hairdressing.
  • Health care services like – Laundry or dry cleaning.
Hand eczema or dermatitis - Red itchy and dry patches occur on hand.

image source from

8.Seborrhoeic dermatitis –

  • It is also known as Cradle Cap  in infants.
  • A thick yellow crusty layer or rash may appear on skin.
  • Skin may become dry or greasy.
  • Peeling of scalp eyebrows, face and trunk may seen.
Eczema or Seborrhoeic dermatitis - It is also known as Cradle Cap in infants. A thick yellow crusty layer or rash may appear on skin.

image source from

9.Dermatitis herpetiformis –

  • Symmetrical rashes occur on arms, thighs, knees and back.
  • There is violent itching which is worse at night.
  • Papules of size 1 cm and vesicles may occur.
  • There is burning and stinging sensation.
  • It is also seen on shoulders, elbow, neck, buttocks.
Eczema or Dermatitis herpetiformis - Symmetrical rashes occur on arms , thighs , knees and back.

image source from

10.Autoeczematization –

It is secondary to parasitic, fungal, bacterial or viral infection.

What are the complications of eczema or atopic dermatitis?


Risk of superimposed bacterial or viral infections.

Repeated scratching may lead to open sore or cracks in the skin due to breakage in the skin layer.

Lichenification may occur – i.e. thickening of skin due to repeated scratching and itching.

What tests are used to diagnose eczema or atopic dermatitis?

Usually history and Physical examination is more than sufficient.

Patch test – i.e. Some allergic test may also be helpful to check out the allergies. It reveals that one is allergic to that particular allergen.

Skin biopsy.

How can I prevent my Baby from getting eczema or atopic dermatitis?

Try to reduce exposure or try to avoid the things which trigger or aggravate your condition.

Take special care in humidity.

Moisturize your skin if it is dry.

Avoid stress.

Take very well care while handling chemicals.

Avoid hard soaps and use gentle soaps or detergents.

Avoid rough and tight-fitting clothes.

eczema or atopic dermatitis Management –

Antihistamines – for controlling itching however it has side effects like it causes drowsiness.

Corticosteroids – for controlling itching and swelling however it has side effects like it causes thinning of skin, discoloration, irritation.

Antibiotics – reduces infection.

Immunomodulators – to reduce flare-ups however it has side effects like it causes kidney diseases, high blood pressure, infection or even cancers.

Light therapy– exposing skin to mild sunlight and uv rays for treating rashes however overuse to uv rays may causes skin cancer.

Eat anti-inflammatory food like omega 3 fatty acid rich food, vitamin d, e, b6 rich food or food rich in Quercetin like broccoli, cherries and blue berries.

When to consult a doctor for eczema or atopic dermatitis?

  • When child is not comfortable during sleep because of itching.
  • If you see skin infection whether it may be red or pustular, or even if scab formation takes place.
  • Skin eruptions are infected
  • Fever with rash.

How can I get rid of eczema on my skin?

Homeopathic medicines for eczema or atopic dermatitis –


In Graphitis there is rough, hard and dry skin. Eruptions may ooze out a sticky exudation. There is rawness in bends of limb, groins, neck behind ears. Skin is unhealthy, every little injury suppurates. Eczema is more of anal region, crural or palmar. Eruptions aggravate on heat. Itching aggravates on warmth. Excoriation of skin with voluptuous itching. Skin is moist after scratching, Sticky honey-like fluid comes out on scratching.

There is weeping eczema. There is eczema of fatty people, blonde complexion who easily catches cold. Skin is very dry never perspires and is inclined to cracked. Painful to contact, starting behind ear, extending to vertex and down to cheek, eczema of scalp, forming massive dirty crusts, which mat the hair together, violent itching and burning.

Worse – Itching worse in evening or at night, Suppression; of eruptions, Warmth of bed.

Better – Open air, after walking in, wrapping up.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Alternating with internal complaints: 3 Graph

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Warmth agg.: 1 Graph

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Moist: 4 Graph

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Moist:Glutinous: 4 Graph


It is useful in eczema of scalp, on genitals and upon folds on scrotum and thighs which is very sore and sensitive to the touch. Humid Skin, burning or sore on scratching. Violent itching on rising in the morning, it emits an offensive odor and spreads by means of new pimples appearing just beyond the old parts; BOILS ON HEAD AND NECK, very sensitive to contact (It is opposite to Graph).

Pustular eczema. It is often useful after application of salves and ointments; Also useful in crusta lactea tetter, rhagades, excoriations. Skin is unhealthy; every little injury suppurates.  There are deep cracks on hands and feet. Patient cannot bear to be uncovered; wants to be wrapped up warmly. Great sensitiveness to slightest touch. Cold sores. Hands and feet always cold.

Worse – In cold dry air, winter, cold wind; drafts, least uncovering, lying on painful part.

Better – Heat, warm wraps, moist heat, damp weather.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Moist: 3 Hep

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Suppurating: 3 Hep


It covers eczema of hands, wrists, lower extremities and sacrum. Itching is better on scratching and burning after itching. Soreness of skin.
Itching and prickling more on overheated from exercise. Above all, another attack of symptoms occur before one attack subsides. Ichorous oozing out from eczematous eruptions. Itching causes difficulty in sleeping.

Worse – Walking.

Better – Scratching, rising in morning.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema: 4 Jug-c


Eczema on hairy parts like head, it is covered with thick leather like crusts under which there is thick and white pus collects – DERMATITIS WITH PUSTULES. In mezereum, hairs are glued and matted together. It affects specially those parts of skin which is normally deficient in fat. Itch – like eruptions after vaccination in children, Child scratches face incessantly.

There is intolerable itching, chilliness aggravated in bed and warm bath; compels the patient to scratch and changing location again and again. Vesicular eczema which burns like a fire. Eruptions are oozing; acrid; gluey moisture; it forms chalky white crusts or honey-like crusts about mouth and cheeks. Eruptions ulcerate; there is offensive pus. After scratching fat pustules form.

Worse – Warmth of bed or of fire, from touch, when undressing, night, vaccination.

Better – Wrapping up, radiated heat or open air.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Vaccination, after: 3 Mez

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Moist: 3 Mez


There is thick yellowish green crusts or amber colored crusts on face and neck. Eczema mostly of face, dermatitis under nose, neck, scrotum, perineum, thighs. Eczema is dry and scaly, or moist which reappears in winter or cold weather. Thickened skin like parchment; which gets raw and won’t heal easily.

Skin is dry, constricted, rough, cracked, leathery, very sensitive to touch and bleeds easily. Slightest scratch to skin suppurates easily. Itching violent; patient scratches until it bleeds and part gets cold after scratching. Clothing painful. If eczema gets suppressed it causes diarrhea. Discharge is profuse, thin, watery, pain is like a burnt area. Inflamed skin; heals with very difficult.

Worse – At night, winter, before or during thunderstorm, touch of clothes even.

Better – Summer, warm air, open air, dry weather.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Sun, from: 3 Petr

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Dry: 3 Petr

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Vesicular: 3 Petr


Eczema or atopic dermatitis with severe itching, burning which gets aggravated by washing or scratching. Skin infections increases after local medication. Eczema caused by hair dyes. Skin is dry, rough, scaly, itching especially from warmth of bed; patient feels good from scratching. It reappears in spring, in damp weather.

Fiery redness of all the orifices. Too offensive odor from the body; offensive discharges; thick pus. Palms and soles are hot. Patient is usually untidy and dirty and hates to be washed. Every little injury suppurates.

Worse – Suppressions, bathing, becoming heated, by overexertion, in bed, by woolen clothes.

Better – Open air, motions, dry warm weather.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Climacteric period, in: 1 Sulph

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Dry: 1 Sulph

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Moist: 3 Sulph

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Vesicular: 1 Sulph


Dry scaly eczema on scalp and face, behind ears. There is crust over the scalp which causes falling of hair and oozing occurs from the crust and it produces new vesicles. DERMATITIS WITH PUSTULES; Discharge is thick, excoriating offensive like disposed meat. Fetid eruptions. It is aggravated by cold i.e. winter. There is intolerable itching and dirty look of skin. There is aggravation from warmth of bed and patient scratches until there is bleeding.

Worse – Cold, open air, washing, changing of weather, heat of bed, suppressions.

Better – Washing, Hard pressure, profuse sweating, warm clothing.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Air, open, amel.: 1 Psor

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Hereditary: 1 Psor


In arsenic album there is dry, scaly and rough skin. Chronic Eczema or atopic dermatitis with intense burning, itching, swelling and restlessness. Eczema is between fingers and there are cracks on the tips of fingers or scaly eruptions on scalp and face. Desquamation of skin from head to feet. Discharge is fetid and acrid. Slightest exertion causes exhaustion. Icy coldness of body.

Worse – Cold, scratching, midnight, damp, lying on affected parts.

Better – From heat, External heat, warm wraps, sweating, open air.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Neurasthenia, in: 1 Ars

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Parts, exposed: 1 Ars


It covers ECZEMA or atopic dermatitis of infants especially. Itching always aggravated from cold wet weather. DERMATITS WITH BLISTERS; Vesicular eruptions on face, genitals, hands and scalp causing hair fall. Thick, yellowish brown crusts formed which bleeds easily when scratched. Severe itching and burning after scratching or uncovering. Itching diminishes after formation of crusts. As a result, skin is sensitive to contact.

Worse – Being chilled, while hot, sudden change of temperature, dampness, cold weather, in night, sweat, rest, uncovering, hot days cold night.

Better – Warmth, dry weather, moving the affected part.


[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Rheumatic complaints, in: 1 Dulc

[Complete ] [Skin]ERUPTIONS:Eczema:Swelling of cervical lymphatic tissue, with: 1 Dulc

Can eczema or atopic dermatitis just go away?


A patient aged 5 years suffering from eczema since her 4 months of age. There was severe itching, cracks, bleeding and burning sensation in the eruption area.

Her constitution – She is very fast, mischievous, witty, obstinate, loves to dance, attention seeking, craves appreciation, creative and impatient girl. She made mistake in writing for instance she wrote b instead of d. She is very sensitive to rudeness.

In mother’s pregnancy history – Mother felt that her sister-in-law got more attention than her therefore she felt alone. She had seen an abnormal baby during pregnancy therefore she had a fear of misfortune that her baby should not be like that.

After thorough case taking and analysis I took the rubrics –

  • Mistakes making, writing, in letters, transposing, misplacing.
  • Fear of misfortune.
  • Delusion imagination, neglected he or she is.

and the prescribed medicine was stramonium 200.

Within a period of month eruptions got less and there was no crack and bleeding stopped completely.

And within 3 months her eczema got completely cured.

This is ECZEMA and cure.

What dermatitis look like?

Eczema or atopic dermatits and cure

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